|United States Patent||5,273,729|
|Howard, et. al.||Dec. 28, 1993|
|Inventors:||Howard; Jack B. (Winchester, MA); McKinnon; J. Thomas (Boulder, CO).|
|Assignee:||Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA).|
|Filed:||May 24, 1991|
|Intl. Cl.:||C01B 31/00;|
|Field of Search:||445;448;445 B;DIG. 20 |
|5,008,098||Apr., 1991||Bernadiner et al.||423/DIG .20|
Heath et al., "Lanthanum Complexes of Spheroidal Carbon Shells", Journ. Am Chem Soc., vol. 107 pp. 7779-7780 (1985).
Loffler et al., "Large Ions in Premixed Benzene-Oxygen Flames", Institut fur Physikalische Chemie der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt, (1990).
Christopher James Pope, "Fluxes and Net Reaction Rates of High Molecular Weight Material in a Near-Sooting Benzene-Oxygen Flame", Master's Thesis subm. to MIT Jan. 1988, pp. 80-82.
Bittner et al., "Pre-Particle Chemistry in Soot Formation", from Particulate Carbon Formation During Combustion, edited by D. C. Siegla, & G. W. Smith (Plenum Publ. Corp.) 1981.
Zhang et al., "Reactivity of Large Carbon Clusters: Spheroidal Carbon Shells and Their Possible Relevance to the Formation and Morphology of Soot", J. Phys. Chem., 90(4):525.
Kroto et al., "C(60) Buckminsterfullerene", Nature, 318:162, (Nov. 1985).
Gerhardt et al., "The Formation of Polyhedral Carbon Ions in Fuel-Rich Acetylene and Benzene Flames", 22nd Symposium Int'n'l on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, p. 395 (1988).
Harold Kroto, "Space, Stars, C(60), and Soot", Science, 242:1139, (Nov. 1988).
Haufler et al., "Efficient Production of C(60) (Buckminsterfullerene), C(60) H(36), and the Solvated Buckide Ion", J. Phys. Chem., 94(24):8634.
Kratschmer et al., "Solid C(60) : a new form of carbon", Nature, 347:354, (Sep. 1990).
Curl et al., "Probing C(60) ", Science, 242:1017 (Nov. 1988).
Ajie et al., "Characterization of the Soluble All-Carbon Molecules C(60) and C(70) ", J. Phys. Chem., 94(24):8630.
H. W. Kroto, "The stability of the fullerenes C(n), with n=24, 28, 32, 36, 50, 60 and 70", Nature, 329:529, (Oct. 1987).
Kroto et al., "The formation of quasi-icosahedral spiral shell carbon particles", Nature, 331:328, (Jan. 1988).
McKinnon et al., "Combustion Synthesis of Buckminsterfullerene", Article presented at the Western States Section/The Combustion Institute 1991 Spring Meeting (subm. to Combustion & Flame Mar. 1991).
Gerhardt et al., "Polyhedral carbon ions in hydrocarbon flames", Chem. Phys. Ltrs., 137(4):306, (Jun. 1987).
A method for synthesizing fullerenes in flames is provided. Fullerenes are prepared by burning carbon-containing compounds in a flame and collecting the condensibles. The condensibles contain the desired fullerenes. Fullerene yields can be optimized and fullerene composition can be selectively varied. Fullerene yields and compositions are determined by selectively controlling flame conditions and parameters such as C/O ratio, pressure, temperature, residence time, diluent concentration and gas velocity.
This invention was made with government support under contract Number DE-FG02-84ER-13282 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.